a chemotherapeutic synthetic antibiotic that belongs to class of fluoroquinolone. This second generation
antibacterial kills bacteria by troubling those enzymes that cause their DNA to get reversed after getting
copied, consequently stalling the synthesis of protein as well as their DNA.
Ciprofloxacin is used
for treating not just prostate infection (prostatitis) and urinary tract infection but several other ailments
also like infections of joints and bones, gastroenteritis, endocarditis, malignant otitis externa
(inflammation and damage of the bones and cartilage at the base of the skull), cellulitis, respiratory tract
infections, chancroid (bacterial sexually transmitted infection characterized by painful
sores on the genitalia)
can also be used to treat anthrax, skin and skin-structure infections, diarrhea, typhoid fever, urethra
gonorrhea and uncomplicated cervical infection. In addition, the medication is also recommended for the
treatment of serious other bacterial infections, especially hospital-acquired infections.
However, ciprofloxacin is not prescribed for treating
Dosage: For adults, an oral dosage of 250-750
mg of Ciprofloxacin can be given according to the nature and the severity of the infection. The pediatric dosage
of this drug is 5-15 mg/kg. In case of kidney disease (such as renal impairment), the dosage is adjusted as per
the recommendation of doctor.
considered to be contraindicated for following medical conditions:
- When patient is being given other
drugs that are mainly metabolized by CYP1A2.
- When patient is being given
tizanidine (Zanaflex, Sirdalud)
- When patient has history of
hypersensitivity towards this drug or to any drug of the quinolone class, or to any of its
patient shows local reactions in the form of skin rashes
patient shows resistance to antibiotics
patient is pregnant, nursing mother, epileptic or suffering from seizure disorders
Mechanism of Action (MOA):
Ciprofloxacin encourages breaking DNA
and stalls DNA gyrase that is vital for reproducing bacterial DNA.
Absorption – Ciprofloxacin is rapidly absorbed from the GI tract with
maximum plasma concentrations after 2 hours of oral intake. However, the absorption process can get delayed due to
presence of food.
Metabolism – Ciprofloxacin is converted into
sulfociprofloxacin, oxociprofloxacin, and other metabolites.
Excretion – Ciprofloxacin gets primarily excreted through urine by
glomerular filtration, and tubular secretion. It also gets excreted through faeces as sulfociprofloxacin. Its
elimination half-life is 3.5 to 4.5 hours and is also removed by peritoneal dialysis and
drug can have serious effects in the form of seizures, it needs to be carefully used in conjunctions with
other drugs. Sulcralfate, antacids, and products containing iron, calcium, or zinc may interfere with the
oral intake of ciprofloxacin, especially if they are taken within short duration. These drugs, and their
compounds, should be taken 6 hours before or 2 hours after the intake of Ciprofloxacin, lest it would not
render desired therapeutic results.
safety issues of Ciprofloxacin are just similar to other antibiotics. While elderly and children are at greater
risk of experiencing adverse reactions, occasional adverse side effects may occur in other patients due to
serious and fatal events like hypersensitivity, or doubtful etiology. Sometimes psychotic reactions, acute
pancreatitis, interstitial nephritis, bone marrow depression, and hemolytic anemia may also occur during
Additional adverse side effects may
include temporary and/or permanent loss of vision, drug induced psychosis, irreversible double vision,
involuntary muscle movements, exanthema, impaired color vision, abdominal pain, drug fever, malaise,
eosinophilia, and dysesthesia (dysaesthesia).